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Title: Waste mitigation: from an effluent of apple juice concentrate industry to a valuable ingredient for food and feed applications
Author: Cruz, Marco G.
Bastos, Rita
Pinto, Mariana
Ferreira, João M.
Santos, João F.
Wessel, Dulcineia Ferreira
Coelho, Elisabete
Coimbra, Manuel A.
Keywords: Retentate
Amino acids composition
Lipophilic compounds
Apple cider
Issue Date: 20-Aug-2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Retentate is a by-product of the concentrate apple juice industry, resultant from clarification through an ultrafiltration process. It has a liquid to sludgy appearance, with 8% of total solids content, usually discarded as industrial waste, conveyed as wastewater directly to the sewage plant. However, its origin and expected composition may allow to define its use as a source of valuable compounds as well as its application in food and feed. The present work shows that retentate is very rich in carbohydrates, namely 40% fructose (dry weight), glucose (8%), oligosaccharides (5%), and polysaccharides (3%). It is also rich in protein (8%) and an available and inexpensive source of β-sitosterol (0.6%). This was the major sterol identified, accounting for 21% of total lipophilic compounds recovered by n-hexane. The retentate suspension was successfully used as nutritive medium for production of cider by a microbrewery and the protein-rich water insoluble material (28% of protein) was successfully used in feed formulations for racing pigeons.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.109
ISSN: 0959-6526
Appears in Collections:DQ - Artigos
QOPNA - Artigos

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