Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/23815
Title: Can volatile organic metabolites be used to simultaneously assess microbial and mite contamination level in cereal grains and coffee beans?
Author: Salvador, Ângelo C.
Baptista, Inês
Barros, António S.
Gomes, Newton C. M.
Cunha, Ângela
Almeida, Adelaide
Rocha, Silvia M.
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Abstract: A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC-ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/23815
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059338
ISSN: 1932-6203
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DBio - Artigos
DQ - Artigos
QOPNA - Artigos

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