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Title: The water-soluble fraction of potentially toxic elements in contaminated soils: Relationships between ecotoxicity, solubility and geochemical reactivity
Author: Rocha, L
Rodrigues, SM
Lopes, I
Soares, AMVM
Duarte, AC
Pereira, E
Keywords: Soil properties
Soil extraction
Ecotoxicity assays
Risk assessment
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: To better understand the impacts posed by soil contamination to aquatic ecosystems it is crucial to characterise the links between ecotoxicity, chemical availability and geochemical reactivity of potentially toxic elements (PTE's) in soils. We evaluated the adverse effects of water extracts obtained from soils contaminated by chemical industry and mining, using a test battery including organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae and daphnids). These tests provided a quick assessment of the ecotoxicity of soils with respect to possible adverse effects on aquatic organisms although the ecotoxicological responses could be related to the solubility of PTE's only to a limited extent. The analysis of results of bioassays together with the chemical characterisation of water extracts provided additional relevant insight into the role of conductivity, pH, Al, Fe, and Mn of soil extracts on toxicity to organisms. Furthermore, an important conclusion of this study was that the toxicity of extracts to the aquatic organisms could also be related to the soil properties (pH, Org C and Fe(ox)) and to the reactivity of PTE's in soils which in fact control the soluble fraction of the contaminants. The combined assessment of ecotoxicity in water fractions, solubility and geochemical reactivity of PTE's in soils provided a more comprehensive understanding of the bioavailability of inorganic contaminants than ecotoxicological or chemical studies alone and can therefore be most useful for environmental risks assessment of contaminated soils. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.035
ISSN: 0045-6535
Appears in Collections:BIO - Artigos

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