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Title: Can ocean warming alter sub-lethal effects of antiepileptic and antihistaminic pharmaceuticals in marine bivalves?
Author: Almeida, Ângela
Calisto, Vânia
Esteves, Valdemar I.
Schneider, Rudolf J.
Figueira, Etelvina
Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.
Freitas, Rosa
Keywords: Pharmaceutical drugs
Climate change
Marine environment
Issue Date: Jan-2021
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: The negative effects induced in marine organisms by Climate Change related abiotic factors consequences, namely ocean warming, are well-known. However, few works studied the combined impacts of ocean warming and contaminants, as pharmaceutical drugs. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and cetirizine (CTZ) occur in the marine environment, showing negative effects in marine organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of ocean warming on the effects of CBZ and CTZ, when acting individually and combined (drug vs drug), in the edible clam Ruditapes philippinarum. For that, drugs concentration, bioconcentration factors and biochemical parameters, related with clam's metabolic capacity and oxidative stress, were evaluated after 28 days exposure to environmentally relevant scenarios of these stressors. The results showed limited impacts of the drugs (single and combined) at control and warming condition. Indeed, it appeared that warming improved the oxidative status of contaminated clams (higher reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, lower lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels), especially when both drugs were combined. This may result from clam's defence mechanisms activation and reduced metabolic capacity that, respectively, increased elimination and limited production of reactive oxygen species. At low stress levels, defence mechanisms were not activated which resulted into oxidative stress. The present findings highlighted that under higher stress levels clams may be able to activate defence strategies that were sufficient to avoid cellular damages and loss of redox homeostasis. Nevertheless, low concentrations were tested in the present study and the observed responses may greatly change under increased pollution levels or temperatures. Further research on this topic is needed since marine heat waves are increasing in frequency and intensity and pollution levels of some pharmaceuticals are also increasing in coastal systems.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105673
ISSN: 0166-445X
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