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Title: Toxicity assessment of binary mixtures of BP3 with 4-MBC (UV-filters), and BP3 with DEET (insect repellent) using the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius
Author: Campos, Diana
Morgado, Rui G.
Silva, Ana Rita R.
Machado, Ana L.
Grabicová, Kateřina
Žlábek, Vladimír
Loureiro, Susana
Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.
Pestana, João L. T.
Keywords: Combined effects
Personal care products
Linear models
Aquatic organisms
Mixture toxicity
Issue Date: 2-Jun-2023
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Personal care products have various organic ultraviolet filters (UV filters) in their composition to increase protection against ultraviolet radiation. Some of these products also contain insect repellents in their formulations. Consequently, these compounds reach freshwater ecosystems, exposing aquatic organisms to a cocktail of anthropogenic contaminants. In this study, the joint effects of two most frequently detected UV filters (Benzophenone - 3 (BP3) and Enzacamene (4-MBC)) and joint effects of BP3 combined with an insect repellent (N, N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide - DEET) were evaluated using life-history traits of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius such as emergence rate, time to emergence and imagoes body weight. The results showed synergistic effects between BP3 and 4-MBC for C. riparius emergence rate. Regarding the effects of BP3 and DEET mixture, our analysis suggests synergism in the case of males but antagonism in the case of females' time to emergence. Our results imply that the effects of UV filters present in sediments within chemical mixtures are complex and that the evaluation of effects using different life-history traits can yield different patterns of responses. This study demonstrates the importance of assessing the combined effects of pollutants used/found concomitantly in aquatic systems for a more accurate risk assessment, as individual chemical testing can underestimate the toxicity of organic UV filters.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164594
ISSN: 0048-9697
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DBio - Artigos

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