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Title: Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept
Author: Rodrigues, S. M.
Cruz, N.
Coelho, C.
Henriques, B.
Carvalho, L.
Duarte, A. C.
Pereira, E.
Römkens, Paul F. A. M.
Keywords: Urban soils
Potentially toxic elements
Soil extraction
Oral bioaccessibility
Risk assessment
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43??M HNO 3 (reactive), 0.01??M CaCl 2 (available), and 0.4??M glycine at pH??=??1.5, SBET method (oral bioaccessible pool). Oral bioaccessibility in urban soils was higher than in samples from rural, industrial and mining areas which is most likely related to sources of metals and parent materials of corresponding soils. The availability and reactivity were described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations when considering differences in soil properties. The resulting empirical models are able to predict availability and reactivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of risk assessment. Furthermore, a close 1:1 relationship exists between results from the 0.43??M HNO 3 method and the SBET method which substantially facilitates risk assessment procedures and reduces analytical costs.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.10.006
ISSN: 0269-7491
Publisher Version:
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DQ - Artigos

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