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Title: Jaguar and puma activity patterns and predator-prey interactions in four Brazilian biomes
Author: Foster, Vania C.
Sarmento, Pedro
Sollman, Rahel
Torres, Natalia
Jácomo, Anah T. A.
Negrões, Nuno
Fonseca, Carlos
Silveira, Leandro
Keywords: Camera trapping
Coefficient of overlapping
Kernel density estimator
Panthera onca
Predator coexistence
Puma concolor
Temporal partitioning
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Wiley
Abstract: Jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) coexist throughout the Neotropics. Using camera trapping in four Brazilian biomes, we compare the daily activity patterns of the jaguar and puma, and their relationships with their main prey species. We used a kernel density method to quantify daily activity patterns and to investigate overlap between these predators and their main prey. Both cats showed intensive nocturnal and crepuscular activity (0.69 and 0.14 kernel density, respectively, for jaguars; 0.68 and 0.19 kernel density, respectively, for pumas). Only in the Pantanal did we observe a pattern of concentrated diurnal activity for both species. We found little temporal segregation between jaguars and pumas, as they showed similar activity patterns with high coefficients of overlapping (average Δ1 = 0.86; SE = 0.15). We also observed a significant overlap between the activity patterns of the predators and their main prey species, suggesting that both predators adjust their activity to reduce their foraging energy expenditure. Our findings suggest that temporal partitioning is probably not a generalized mechanism of coexistence between jaguars and pumas; instead, the partitioning of habitat/space use and food resources may play a larger role in mediating top predator coexistence. Knowledge about these behavior aspects is crucial to elucidating the factors that enable coexistence of jaguars and pumas. Furthermore, an understanding of their respective activity periods is relevant to management and associated research efforts.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1111/btp.12021
ISSN: 0006-3606
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