Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/23840
Title: Comfort parameters and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air
Author: Alves, Célia
Nunes, Teresa
Silva, Joana
Duarte, Márcio
Keywords: Air exchange rates
Indoor air quality
OC/EC
PM10
PM2.5
Water soluble ions
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research
Abstract: In January 2012, one kindergarten and eight elementary school classrooms were monitored. The campaign included simultaneous measurements, indoors and outdoors, of comfort parameters, CO, CO<inf>2</inf> and particles. Automatic monitors using a light scattering technique were employed to measure PM<inf>10</inf> continuously. During occupied periods, low volume samplers were used to daily collect PM<inf>2.5</inf> samples, which were subsequently analysed for carbonates, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble inorganic ions. With regard to comfort, the schools did not meet the recommended levels in many rooms. Indoor-outdoor CO<inf>2</inf> ratios between 3 and 12, and indoor levels much higher than 1000 ppm during the occupied periods, indicate the highly inadequate ventilation in these locations. The results clearly demonstrate that there is a high level of exposure to particulate matter in these schools. The continuous measurements of PM<inf>10</inf> suggest that the physical activity of pupils, which is assumed to be more marked in younger children, contributes to a constant process of resuspension of sedimented particles. In addition, peak PM<inf>10</inf> concentrations coincident with cleaning activities suggest the need to change certain practices to improve cleanliness. Around 40% of the PM<inf>2.5</inf> mass is composed of carbonaceous matter, with 4-5 times higher OC mass fractions than EC. It was observed that both OC and EC were significantly influenced by indoor sources. Water-soluble inorganic ions represented around 10-20% of the PM<inf>2.5</inf> mass measured in classrooms. Excluding calcium, in general the ionic species were present at indoor-outdoor ratios of less than 1, suggesting the major origin in the outdoor air.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/23840
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2012.11.0321
ISSN: 1680-8584
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DAO - Artigos

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