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Title: The putative functional ecology and distribution of archaeal communities in sponges, sediment and seawater in a coral reef environment
Author: Polónia, Ana R. M.
Cleary, Daniel F. R.
Freitas, Rossana
de Voogd, Nicole J.
Gomes, Newton C. M.
Keywords: archaea
coral reef
sponge metabolomics
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Wiley
Abstract: Archaea play crucial roles in a number of key ecological processes including nitrification and methanogenesis. Although several studies have been conducted on these organisms, the roles and dynamics of coral reef archaeal communities are still poorly understood, particularly in host and nonhost biotopes and in high (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. Here, archaeal communities detected in six distinct biotopes, namely, sediment, seawater and four different sponge species Stylissa carteri, Stylissa massa, Xestospongia testudinaria and Hyrtios erectus from the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia were investigated using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (OTU cut-off 97%). Archaeal communities from sediment and sponges were dominated by Crenarchaeota, while the seawater community was dominated by Euryarchaeota. The biotope explained almost 75% of the variation in archaeal composition, with clear separation between microbial assemblages from sediment, X. testudinaria and H. erectus (HMA). In contrast, samples from seawater and both Stylissa species (LMA) showed considerable overlap in the ordination and, furthermore, shared most abundant OTUs with the exception of a single dominant OTU specifically enriched in both Stylissa species. Predicted functional gene content in archaeal assemblages also revealed significant differences among biotopes. Different ammonia assimilation strategies were exhibited by the archaeal communities: X. testudinaria, H. erectus and sediment archaeal communities were enriched for glutamate dehydrogenase with mixed specificity (NAD(P)+) pathways, while archaeal planktonic communities were enriched for specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) and glutamate synthase pathways. Archaeal communities in Stylissa had intermediate levels of enrichment. Our results indicate that archaeal communities in different biotopes have distinct ecophysiological roles.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1111/mec.13024
ISSN: 0962-1083
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