Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/10318
Title: Expression of synapsin and co-localization with serotonin and RFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the chordoid larva of Symbion pandora (Cycliophora)
Author: Neves, Ricardo Cardoso
Cunha, Marina Ribeiro da
Kristensen, Reinhardt Mobjerg
Wanninger, Andreas
Keywords: Cycliophora
Confocal
Evolution
Phylogeny
Spiralia
Lophotrochozoa
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Abstract: Cycliophora is one of the most recently described metazoan phyla and hitherto includes only two species: Symbion pandora and Symbion americanus. With a very complex life cycle, cycliophorans are regarded as an enigmatic group with an uncertain phylogenetic position, although they are commonly considered lophotrochozoan protostomes. In order to extend the database concerning the distribution of immunoreactive substances in the free-swimming chordoid larva of S. pandora, we investigated synapsin immunoreactivity using fluorescence-coupled antibodies in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy. Moreover, we analyzed the co-localization patterns of synapsin, serotonin, and RFamide-like immunoreactivity in the chordoid larva by 3D imaging technology based on the confocal microscopy image stacks. Synapsin is expressed in large parts of the bilobed anterior cerebral ganglion including anterior and dorsal projections. Two pairs of ventral neurites run longitudinally into the larval body of which the inner pair shows only weak, scattered synapsin immunoreactivity. In addition, a lateral synapsin immunoreactive projection emerges posteriorly from each ventral longitudinal axon. Double immunostaining shows co-localization of synapsin and serotonin in the cerebral ganglion, the outer and the inner ventral neurites, and the anterior projections. Synapsin and RFamide-like immunoreactivity co-occur in the cerebral ganglion, the outer ventral neurites, and the dorsal projections. Accordingly, the cerebral ganglion and the outer ventral neurites are the only neural structures that co-express the two neurotransmitters and synapsin. The overall neuroanatomical condition of the cycliophoran chordoid larva resembles much more the situation of adult rather than larval life cycle stages of a number of spiralian taxa.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/10318
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7410.2010.00187.x
ISSN: 1077-8306
Appears in Collections:DBio - Artigos

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