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Title: Association of systemic medication use with glaucoma and intraocular pressure: the E3 Consortium
Author: Vergroesen, Joëlle E.
Schuster, Alexander K.
Stuart, Kelsey V.
Asefa, Nigus G.
Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey
Delcourt, Cécile
Schweitzer, Cédric
Barreto, Patrícia
Coimbra, Rita
Foster, Paul J.
Luben, Robert N.
Pfeiffer, Norbert
Stingl, Julia V.
Kirsten, Toralf
Rauscher, Franziska G.
Wirkner, Kerstin
Jansonius, Nomdo M.
Arnould, Louis
Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P.
Stricker, Bruno H.
Keskini, Christina
Topouzis, Fotis
Bertelsen, Geir
Eggen, Anne E.
Bikbov, Mukharram M.
Jonas, Jost B.
Klaver, Caroline C. W.
Ramdas, Wishal D.
Khawaja, Anthony P.
Keywords: Systemic medication
Intraocular pressure
Issue Date: 6-May-2023
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the association of commonly used systemic medications with glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the European population. Design: Meta-analysis of eleven population-based cohort studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Participants: A total of 143240 participants were included in the glaucoma analyses and 47177 participants in the IOP analyses. Methods: We examined associations of four categories of systemic medications (antihypertensive medications: beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], alpha-agonists, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers; lipid-lowering medications; antidepressants; antidiabetic medications) with glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Glaucoma ascertainment and IOP measurement method were according to individual study protocols. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out in each study and results were pooled using random effects meta-analyses. Associations with antidiabetic medications were examined in diabetic participants only. Main Outcome Measures: Glaucoma prevalence and IOP. Results: In the meta-analyses of our maximally-adjusted multivariable models, use of CCBs was associated with a higher prevalence of glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] with corresponding 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.23 [1.08 to 1.39]). This association was stronger for monotherapy of CCBs with direct cardiac effects (OR [95% CI]: 1.96 [1.23 to 3.12]). The use of other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants or antidiabetic medications were not clearly associated with glaucoma. Use of systemic beta-blockers was associated with a lower IOP (Beta [95% CI]: -0.33 [-0.57 to -0.08] mmHg). Monotherapy of both selective (Beta [95% CI]: -0.45 [-0.74 to -0.16] mmHg) and non-selective (Beta [95% CI]: -0.54 [-0.94 to -0.15] mmHg) systemic beta-blockers was associated with lower IOP. There was a suggestive association between use of high-ceiling diuretics and lower IOP (Beta [95% CI]: -0.30 [-0.47; -0.14] mmHg), but not when used as monotherapy. Use of other antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, antidepressants, or antidiabetic medications were not associated with IOP. Conclusions: We identified a potentially harmful association between use of CCBs and glaucoma prevalence. Additionally, we observed and quantified the association of lower IOP with systemic beta-blocker use. Both findings are potentially important given that glaucoma patients frequently use systemic antihypertensive medications. Determining whether the CCB association is causal should be a research priority.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.05.001
ISSN: 0161-6420
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