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Title: On the importance of joint mitigation strategies for front, bulk, and rear recombination in ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
Author: Lopes, Tomás S.
Wild, Jessica de
Rocha, Célia
Violas, André
Cunha, José M. V.
Teixeira, Jennifer P.
Curado, Marco A.
Oliveira, António J. N.
Borme, Jérôme
Birant, Gizem
Brammertz, Guy
Fernandes, Paulo A.
Vermang, Bart
Salomé, Pedro M. P.
Keywords: Ultrathin CIGS
KF-PDT passivation
Recombination mechanisms
Rear interface passivation
Issue Date: 4-Jun-2021
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Abstract: Several optoelectronic issues, such as poor optical absorption and recombination limit the power conversion efficiency of ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. To mitigate recombination losses, two combined strategies were implemented: a Potassium Fluoride (KF) Post-Deposition Treatment (PDT) and a rear interface passivation strategy based on an Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) point contact structure. The simultaneous implementation of both strategies is reported for the first time on ultrathin CIGS devices. Electrical measurements and 1-D simulations demonstrate that, in specific conditions, devices with only KF-PDT may outperform rear interface passivated based devices. By combining KF-PDT and rear interface passivation, an enhancement in open-circuit voltage of 178 mV is reached over devices that have a rear passivation only and of 85 mV over devices with only a KF-PDT process. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence measurements showed the beneficial effects of combining KF-PDT and the rear interface passivation at decreasing recombination losses in the studied devices, enhancing charge carrier lifetime. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate the presence of a In and Se rich layer that we linked to be a KInSe2 layer. Our results suggest that when bulk and front interface recombination values are very high, they dominate and individual passivation strategies work poorly. Hence, this work shows that for ultrathin devices, passivation mitigation strategies need to be implemented in tandem.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.1c07943
ISSN: 1944-8244
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