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|An adaptive bolus calculator to minimize the impact of inaccurate insulin to carbohydrate ratio
|Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus use intensive insulin therapy to suppress their insulin needs and avoid the adverse consequences of chronic hyperglycemia. Intensive insulin therapy consists of a combination of basal insulin and bolus insulin. While the basal insulin dose is periodically adjusted in collaboration with the healthcare team, patients have to estimate the bolus insulin dose by themselves, before each meal. To accurately estimate the bolus insulin dose, patients must know the carbohydrates content of each meal and their insulin to carbohydrate ratio. The insulin to carbohydrate ratio is initially calculated by experienced diabetologists using high-quality data. However, regarding the glucose complex metabolism, it varies over the day due to several factors. Consequently, daily, patients use approximate values to estimate their bolus insulin. Thus, depending on the error of the insulin to carbohydrate ratio estimates, the patient could experience hypo or hyperglycemic events. Therefore, to avoid the consequences of inaccurate bolus insulin and to improve the patient's glycemic control, this work presents an adaptive insulin bolus calculator that uses the patient's glycemic data to dynamically adjust the mealtime bolus and compensate for the adverse effects of inaccurate insulin to carbohydrate ratio estimates.
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