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Title: Toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to terrestrial organisms and its species sensitivity distribution
Author: Silva, P.V.
Silva, A.R.R.
Mendo, S.
Loureiro, S.
Keywords: Tributyltin (TBT)
Species sensitivity distribution (SSD)
Soil type
Risk assessment
Issue Date: Jan-2014
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: The contamination of the terrestrial environment by disposal of tributyltin (TBT) by contaminated harbour sediments, sewage sludge and/or biocide products has been raising concerns and it may pose a risk to soil invertebrates and plants. This study aimed to improve the amount and quality of data for TBT toxicity in soils in order to assess the ecological risk of TBT to the terrestrial ecosystems. For this, bioassays were performed with the species Porcellionides pruinosus, Folsomia candida, Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum to evaluate the toxic effects of TBT (as chloride) on these species. Additionally, this study contributed to increase the amount of data concerning TBT toxicity on soil dwelling organisms. The results showed a dose–response relationship between TBT concentration and the increase of toxicity in all species tested. These results were collated with results from literature to construct species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and to calculate the hazardous concentration at 5% (HC5) for all data, for each type of soil and TBT formulation used. The HC5 value for TBT in soil was 2.06 mg TBT/kg soil dw. Little information is available concerning the concentrations of TBT in soils. In addition the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) value was determined to be 30 μg/kg soil. Only one study was found referring to TBT contaminated soils, and where TBT concentrations were lower than 0.024 μg TBT/kg for the wetland soil. Therefore it can be concluded that the real TBT concentrations determined represent low risk for environmental effects. In conclusion, the construction of SSDs and the calculation of HC5 using all the data available showed to be a more suitable method rather than the construction of several SSDs for each soil and TBT types. Further investigations concerning TBT concentrations and toxicity on soil organisms need to be performed to increase data and improve risk calculations.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.002
ISSN: 0048-9697
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
Ria de Aveiro - Artigos

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