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|title: ||Ecotoxicological effect of zinc pyrithione in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki|
|authors: ||Nunes, B.|
Braga, M. R.
Campos, J. C.
Ramos, A. S.
Antunes, S. C.
Correia, A. T.
|issue date: ||2015|
|abstract: ||Currently diverse biocidal agents can be used
for distinct applications, such as personal hygiene, disinfection,
antiparasitic activity, and antifouling effects. Zinc
pyrithione is an organometallic biocide, with bactericidal,
algicidal and fungicidal activities. It has been recently
incorporated in antifouling formulas, such as paints, which
prevent the establishment of a biofilm on surfaces exposed
to the aquatic environment. It has also been used in cosmetics,
such as anti-dandruff shampoos and soaps. Previously
reported data has shown the presence of this
substance in the aquatic compartment, a factor contributing
to the potential exertion of toxic effects, and there is also
evidence that photodegradation products of zinc pyrithione
were involved in neurotoxic effects, namely by inhibiting
cholinesterases in fish species. Additional evidence points
to the involvement of zinc pyrithione in alterations of metal
homeostasis and oxidative stress, in both aquatic organisms
and human cell models. The present work assesses the
potential ecotoxicity elicited by zinc pyrithione in the
freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki after an acute (96 h)
exposure. The oxidative stress was assessed by the quantification
of the activities of specific enzymes from the
antioxidant defense system, such as catalase, and glutathione-
S-transferases; and the extent of peroxidative
damage was quantified by measuring the thiobarbituric
acid reactive substances levels. Neurotoxicity was assessed
through measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity; and
a standardized method for the description and assessment
of histological changes in liver and gills of was also used.
Zinc pyrithione caused non-specific and reversible tissue
alterations, both in liver and gills of exposed organisms.
However, histopathological indices were not significantly
different from the control group. In terms of oxidative
stress biomarkers, none of the tested biomarkers indicated
the occurrence of pro-oxidative effects, suggesting that the
oxidative pathway is not the major toxicological outcome
of exposure to zinc pyrithione.|
|publisher version/DOI: ||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-015-1525-6|
|appears in collections||CESAM - Artigos|
BIO - Artigos
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