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Title: A methodology for the systematic identification of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)
Author: Michalik, Boguslaw
Dvorzhak, Alla
Pereira, Ruth
Lourenço, Joana
Haanes, Hallvard
Di Carlo, Christian
Nuccetelli, Cristina
Venoso, Gennaro
Leonardi, Federica
Trevisi, Rosabianca
Trotti, Flavio
Ugolini, Raffaella
Pannecoucke, Lea
Blanchart, Pascale
Perez-Sanchez, Danyl
Real, Almudena
Escribano, Alicia
Fevrier, Laureline
Kallio, Antti
Skipperud, Lindis
Jerome, Simon Mark
Popic, Jelena Mrdakovic
Keywords: Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)
NORM inventory
Radiation protection
Issue Date: 10-Jul-2023
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present worldwide and under certain circumstances (e.g., human activities) may give radiation exposure to workers, local public or occasional visitors and non-human biota (NHB) of the surrounding ecosystems. This may occur during planned or existing exposure situations which, under current radiation protection standards, require identification, management, and regulatory control as for other practices associated with man-made radionuclides that may result in the exposure of people and NHB. However, knowledge gaps exist with respect to the extent of global and European NORM exposure situations and their exposure scenario characteristics, including information on the presence of other physical hazards, such as chemical and biological ones. One of the main reasons for this is the wide variety of industries, practices and situations that may utilise NORM. Additionally, the lack of a comprehensive methodology for identification of NORM exposure situations and the absence of tools to support a systematic characterisation and data collection at identified sites may also lead to a gap in knowledge. Within the EURATOM Horizon 2020 RadoNorm project, a methodology for systematic NORM exposure identification has been developed. The methodology, containing consecutive tiers, comprehensively covers situations where NORM may occur (i.e., minerals and raw materials deposits, industrial activities, industrial products and residues and their applications, waste, legacies), and thus, allows detailed investigation and complete identification of situations where NORM may present a radiation protection concern in a country. Details of the tiered methodology, with practical examples on harmonised data collection using a variety of existing sources of information to establish NORM inventories, are presented in this paper. This methodology is flexible and thus applicable to a diversity of situations. It is intended to be used to make NORM inventory starting from the scratch, however it can be used also to systematise and complete existing data.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163324
ISSN: 0048-9697
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