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Title: Biological effects and bioaccumulation of gold in gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) - nano versus ionic form
Author: Barreto, A
Dias, A.
Duarte, B.
Pinto, E.
Almeida, A.
Trindade, T.
Soares, A. M. V. M.
Hylland, K.
Loureiro, S.
Oliveira, M.
Keywords: Nanotoxicity
Marine fish
Issue Date: 10-May-2020
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: The question of whether gold (Au) is more toxic as nanoparticles or in its ionic form remains unclear and controversial. The present work aimed to clarify the effects of 96 h exposure to 4, 80 and 1600 μg·L-1 of 7 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) - (citrate coated (cAuNPs) or polyvinylpyrrolidone coated (PVP-AuNPs)) - and ionic Au (iAu) on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Effects at different levels of biological organization (behaviour, neurotransmission, biotransformation, oxidative stress/damage and genotoxicity) were assessed. cAuNPs induced oxidative stress and damage (lipid peroxidation increase), even at 4 μg·L-1, and reduced the ability of S. aurata to swim against a water flow at 1600 μg·L-1. Exposure to cAuNPs induced more adverse effects than exposure to PVP-AuNPs. All tested concentrations of Au (nano or ionic form) induced DNA breaks and cytogenetic damage in erythrocytes of S. aurata. Generally, iAu induced significantly more effects in fish than the nano form, probably associated with the significantly higher accumulation in the fish tissues. No fish mortality was observed following exposure to AuNPs, but mortality was observed in the group exposed to 1600 μg·L-1 of iAu.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137026
ISSN: 0048-9697
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