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Title: Assessment of toxic effects of the antibiotic erythromycin on the marine fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) by a multi-biomarker approach
Author: Rodrigues, Sara
Antunes, Sara C.
Correia, Alberto T.
Golovko, Oksana
Žlábek, Vladimír
Nunes, Bruno
Keywords: Detoxification
Energy production
Oxidative stress
Issue Date: Feb-2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Erythromycin (ERY) is one of the most common antibiotics used in human and veterinary practices, leading to ubiquitous environmental distribution and possible toxicity to non-target organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine sub-lethal effects of ERY towards the marine fish Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream). S. aurata were acutely (0.3-323 μg/L, 96 h) and chronically (0.7-8.8 μg/L, 28 d) exposed to ERY. Detoxification [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)], oxidative stress [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed)], lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - (TBARS)], genotoxicity [genetic damage index (GDI) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs)], neurotransmission [acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] and energy metabolism [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were evaluated. Results showed that ERY did not promote significant effects in detoxification biomarkers, but induced slight pro-oxidative effects (decrease of GPx activity in the liver after acute exposure and an increase in gills after chronic exposure; and an increase of hepatic GRed activity following chronic exposure). There was a significant decrease in TBARS after chronic exposure, which contradicts a full scenario of oxidative stress. In terms of genotoxicity, both ERY exposures caused only a significant increase of GDI. Neurotransmission and energy metabolism were not also affected by ERY. Although few toxic effects of ERY have been previously documented (involving different metabolic pathways, as tested in this work), these were mainly observed for freshwater species. These findings suggest low vulnerability of S. aurata to ERY at levels close to the ones found in the wild.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.124
ISSN: 0045-6535
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DBio - Artigos

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