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dc.contributor.authorTeixeira-Santos, Ana C.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorMoreira, Célia S.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorPereira, Diana R.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorPinal, Diegopt_PT
dc.contributor.authorFregni, Felipept_PT
dc.contributor.authorLeite, Jorgept_PT
dc.contributor.authorCarvalho, Sandrapt_PT
dc.contributor.authorSampaio, Adrianapt_PT
dc.description.abstractBackground: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been employed to boost working memory training (WMT) effects. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on the efficacy of this combination in older adults. The present study is aimed to assess the delayed transfer effects of tDCS coupled with WMT in older adults in a 15-day follow-up. We explored if general cognitive ability, age, and educational level predicted the effects. Methods: In this single-center, double-blind randomized sham-controlled experiment, 54 older adults were randomized into three groups: anodal-tDCS (atDCS)CWMT, shamtDCS (stDCS)CWMT, and double-sham. Five sessions of tDCS (2 mA) were applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Far transfer was measured by Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM), while the near transfer effects were assessed through Digit Span. A frequentist linear mixed model (LMM) was complemented by a Bayesian approach in data analysis. Results: Working memory training improved dual n-back performance in both groups submitted to this intervention but only the group that received atDCSCWMT displayed a significant improvement from pretest to follow-up in transfer measures of reasoning (RAPM) and short-term memory (forward Digit Span). Near transfer improvements predicted gains in far transfer, demonstrating that the far transfer is due to an improvement in the trained construct of working memory. Age, formal education, and vocabulary score seem to predict the gains in reasoning. However, Bayesian results do not provide substantial evidence to support this claim.Conclusion: This study will help to consolidate the incipient but auspicious field of cognitive training coupled with tDCS in healthy older adults. Our findings demonstrated that atDCS may potentialize WMT by promoting transfer effects in short-term memory and reasoning in older adults, which are observed especially at follow-up.pt_PT
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was funded by BIAL Foundation (#286/16), Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) (Doctoral Grants SFRH/BD/80965/2011, awarded to ACT-S, and PD/BD/105964/2014, awarded to DRP). This work was conducted at the Psychology Research Centre (PSI/01662), supported by the FCT and the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (UID/PSI/01662/2019), through the national funds (PIDDAC). AS and DRP were supported by FCT (POC-01-0145-FEDER-028682 and NORTE- 01-0145-FEDER-032152). CM was partially supported by CMUP, which was financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), under the project with reference [UIDB/00144/2020]. SC was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Science, through national funds and co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE2020 under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007653) and by the FCT grant PTDC/PSI-ESP/29701/2017 and the individual Grant IF/00091/2015. JL was funded through the grant PTDC/PSIESP/30280/2017.pt_PT
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediapt_PT
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/6817 - DCRRNI ID/UID%2FPSI%2F01662%2F2019/PTpt_PT
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/6817 - DCRRNI ID/UIDB%2F00144%2F2020/PTpt_PT
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/9471 - RIDTI/PTDC%2FPSI-ESP%2F29701%2F2017/PTpt_PT
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/Investigador FCT/IF%2F00091%2F2015%2FCP1294%2FCT0009/PTpt_PT
dc.subjectCognitive trainingpt_PT
dc.subjectWorking memorypt_PT
dc.subjectOlder adultspt_PT
dc.subjectTransfer effectspt_PT
dc.titleWorking memory training coupled with transcranial direct current stimulation in older adults: a randomized controlled experimentpt_PT
degois.publication.titleFrontiers in Aging Neurosciencept_PT
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