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Title: GW190521 as a Merger of Proca Stars: A Potential New Vector Boson of 8.7×10^{-13}  eV
Author: Bustillo, Juan Calderón
Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas
Torres-Forné, Alejandro
Font, José A
Vajpeyi, Avi
Smith, Rory
Herdeiro, Carlos
Radu, Eugen
Leong, Samson H W
Issue Date: 24-Feb-2021
Publisher: American Physical Society
Abstract: Advanced LIGO-Virgo have reported a short gravitational-wave signal (GW190521) interpreted as a quasicircular merger of black holes, one at least populating the pair-instability supernova gap, that formed a remnant black hole of M_{f}∼142  M_{⊙} at a luminosity distance of d_{L}∼5.3  Gpc. With barely visible pre-merger emission, however, GW190521 merits further investigation of the pre-merger dynamics and even of the very nature of the colliding objects. We show that GW190521 is consistent with numerically simulated signals from head-on collisions of two (equal mass and spin) horizonless vector boson stars (aka Proca stars), forming a final black hole with M_{f}=231_{-17}^{+13}  M_{⊙}, located at a distance of d_{L}=571_{-181}^{+348}  Mpc. This provides the first demonstration of close degeneracy between these two theoretical models, for a real gravitational-wave event. The favored mass for the ultralight vector boson constituent of the Proca stars is μ_{V}=8.72_{-0.82}^{+0.73}×10^{-13}  eV. Confirmation of the Proca star interpretation, which we find statistically slightly preferred, would provide the first evidence for a long sought dark matter particle.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.081101
ISSN: 0031-9007
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