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Title: Optimizing microwave-assisted production of waste-based activated carbons for the removal of antibiotics from water
Author: Sousa, Érika
Rocha, Luciana
Jaria, Guilaine
Gil, Maria V.
Otero, Marta
Esteves, Valdemar
Calisto, Vânia
Keywords: Water treatment
Cellulose-derived waste
Carbon adsorbents
Chemical activation
Issue Date: 15-Jan-2021
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: This work aimed at the microwave-assisted production of activated carbon (AC) from primary paper mill sludge (PS) for the adsorption of antibiotics from water. Production conditions, namely pyrolysis temperature, pyrolysis time and activating agent (KOH):PS ratio, were optimized as a function of product yield, specific surface area (SBET), total organic carbon (TOC) content and adsorptive removal percentage of two target antibiotics (amoxicillin (AMX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX)). Under the optimized conditions (pyrolysis at 800 °C during 20 min and a KOH:PS ratio of 1:5), a microporous AC (MW800-20-1:5, with SBET = 1196 m2 g-1, TOC = 56.2% and removal of AMX and SMX = 85% and 72%, respectively) was produced and selected for further kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies. The obtained results were properly described by the Elovich reaction-based kinetic model and the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacities of 204 ± 5 mg g-1 and 217 ± 8 mg g-1 for AMX and SMX, respectively. Considering the satisfactory comparison of these results with the performance of commercial and alternative AC produced by conventional pyrolysis, this work demonstrated the feasibility of the microwave-assisted production of environmentally and energetically sustainable waste-based AC to be applied in the efficient removal of antibiotics from water.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141662
ISSN: 0048-9697
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DAO - Artigos
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