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Title: Serotonin immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the Pandora larva, the Prometheus larva, and the dwarf male of Symbion americanus (Cycliophora)
Author: Neves, Ricardo Cardoso
Møbjerg Kristensen, Reinhardt
Wanninger, Andreas
Keywords: Morphology
Life cycle
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Cycliophora is a recently described phylum of enigmatic metazoans with a very complex life cycle that includes several sexual and asexual stages. Symbion pandora and Symbion americanus are the only two cycliophoran species hitherto described, of which morphological and genetic knowledge is still deficient to clarify the phylogenetic position of the phylum. Aiming to increase the database on the cycliophoran neural architecture, we investigated serotonin immunoreactivity in the free swimming Pandora larva, the Prometheus larva, and the adult dwarf male of S. americanus. In the larval forms, serotonin is mainly expressed in a ring-shaped pattern at the periphery of the antero-dorsal cerebral ganglion. Additionally, several serotonergic perikarya emerge from both sides of the cerebral ganglion. Thin neurites project anteriorly from the cerebral ganglion, while a pair of ventral longitudinal neurites emerges laterally and runs along the anterior-posterior body axis. Posteriorly, the ventral neurites fuse and extend as a posterior projection. In the dwarf male, serotonin is found mainly in the commissural neuropil of the large anterior cerebral ganglion. In addition, serotonin immunoreactivity is present in the most anterior region of the ventral neurites. Comparative analysis of spiralian nervous systems demonstrates that the neuroanatomy of the cycliophoran larval stages resembles much more the situation of adult rather than larval spiralians, which may be explained by secondary loss of larval structures and heterochronic shift of adult components into the nervous system of the Pandora and the Prometheus larva, respectively.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcz.2010.02.002
ISSN: 0044-5231
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DBio - Artigos

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