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Title: Enchytraeus crypticus as model species in soil ecotoxicology
Author: Castro-Ferreira, Marta P.
Roelofs, Dick
van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.
Verweij, Rudo A.
Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.
Amorim, Mónica J. B.
Keywords: Enchytraeid reproduction test (ERT)
Enchytraeus crypticus
Issue Date: Jun-2012
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Enchytraeids are ecologically relevant soil organisms, due to their activity in decomposition and bioturbation in many soil types worldwide. The enchytraeid reproduction test (ERT) guidelines ISO 16387 and OECD 220 are exclusive to the genus Enchytraeus and recommend using the species E. albidus with a 6-week test period. The suggested alternative, E. crypticus has a shorter generation time which may enable the ERT to be twice as fast. To confirm the suitability of a 3-week test period for E. crypticus, the toxicity of five chemicals, with distinct properties and modes of action, was assessed in LUFA 2.2 soil. In all controls the validity criteria were met, as survival of E. crypticus was above 92% and more than 772 juveniles were produced. The good performance supports its appropriateness as model species. Reproduction was more sensitive than survival, with only cadmium and 3,5-dichloroaniline causing significant lethal effects in the tested concentration ranges. The effect concentration causing 50% reduction in the number of juveniles (EC50) was 35 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, <1.0 mg kg(-1) for carbendazim, 145 mg kg(-1) for phenanthrene, 275 mg kg(-1) for pentachloroaniline and 102 mg kg(-1) for 3,5-dichloroaniline. To evaluate the sensitivity of E. crypticus, the present results were compared to literature data for E. albidus. In conclusion, E. crypticus is a suitable model species in soil ecotoxicology, with advantages such as good control performance and speed, leading to a reliable and faster ERT.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.01.021
ISSN: 0045-6535
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DBio - Artigos

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