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Title: Improving access to community-based pulmonary rehabilitation: 3R protocol for real-world settings with cost-benefit analysis
Author: Marques, Alda
Jácome, Cristina
Rebelo, Patrícia
Paixão, Cátia
Oliveira, Ana
Cruz, Joana
Freitas, Célia
Rua, Marília
Loureiro, Helena
Peguinho, Cristina
Marques, Fábio
Simões, Adriana
Santos, Madalena
Martins, Paula
André, Alexandra
De Francesco, Sílvia
Martins, Vitória
Brooks, Dina
Simão, Paula
Keywords: Exercise training
Education and psychosocial support
Chronic respiratory diseases
Primary healthcare
Issue Date: 31-May-2019
Publisher: BMC
Abstract: Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has demonstrated patients’ physiological and psychosocial improvements, symptoms reduction and health-economic benefits whilst enhances the ability of the whole family to adjust to illness. However, PR remains highly inaccessible due to lack of awareness of its benefits, poor referral and availability mostly in hospitals. Novel models of PR delivery are needed to enhance its implementation while maintaining cost-efficiency. We aim to implement an innovative community-based PR programme and assess its cost-benefit. Methods: A 12-week community-based PR will be implemented in primary healthcare centres where programmes are not available. Healthcare professionals will be trained. 73 patients with CRD and their caregivers (dyads patientcaregivers) will compose the experimental group. The control group will include dyads age- and disease-matched willing to collaborate in data collection but not in PR. Patients/family-centred outcomes will be dyspnoea (modified Medical Research Council Questionnaire), fatigue (Checklist of individual strength and Functional assessment of chronic illness therapy – fatigue), cough and sputum (Leicester cough questionnaire and Cough and sputum assessment questionnaire), impact of the disease (COPD Assessment Test), emotional state (The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), number of exacerbations, healthcare utilisation, health-related quality of life and family adaptability/cohesion (Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scale). Other clinical outcomes will be peripheral (biceps and quadriceps-hand held dynamometer, 1 or 10 repetition-maximum) and respiratory (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures) muscle strength, muscle thickness and cross sectional area (biceps brachialis, rectus femoris and diaphragm-ultrasound imaging), exercise capacity (six-minute walk test and one-minute sit to stand test), balance (brief-balance evaluation systems test) and physical activity (accelerometer). Data will be collected at baseline, at 12 weeks, at 3- and 6-months post-PR. Changes in the outcome measures will be compared between groups, after multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, and effect sizes will be calculated. A cost-benefit analysis will be conducted.Discussion: This study will enhance patients access to PR, by training healthcare professionals in the local primary healthcare centres to conduct such programmes and actively involving caregivers. The cost-benefit analysis of this intervention will provide an evidence-based insight into the economic benefit of community-based PR in chronic respiratory diseases. Trial registration: The trial was registered in the U.S. National Library of Medicine, on 10th January, 2019 (registration number: NCT03799666). Keywords: Exercise training, Education and psychosocial support, Chronic respiratory diseases, Primary healthcare, Cost-benefit.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7045-1
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