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dc.contributor.authorKukkonen, J.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorOlsson, T.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorSchultz, D. M.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorBaklanov, A.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorKlein, T.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorMiranda, A. I.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorMonteiro, A.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorHirtl, M.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorTarvainen, V.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorBoy, M.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorPeuch, V.-H.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorPoupkou, A.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorKioutsioukis, I.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorFinardi, S.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorSofiev, M.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorSokhi, R.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorLehtinen, K. E. J.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorKaratzas, K.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorSan José, R.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorAstitha, M.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorKallos, G.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorSchaap, M.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorReimer, E.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorJakobs, H.pt_PT
dc.contributor.authorEben, K.pt_PT
dc.description.abstractNumerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models through parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affects the pre dicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational requirements, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles.pt_PT
dc.description.sponsorshipWe acknowledge the funding of COST ES0602, ES1004, 728, and EU TRANSPHORM. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP/2007-2011 within the project MEGAPOLI, grant agreement no. 212520. David Schultz is partially funded by Vaisala Oyj. We thank the following people for their contributions to this manuscript: Paul Agnew, Gregory Carmichael, Lucy Davis, Oriol Jorba, Mark Lawrence, Dimitros Melas, Arjo Segers, William Skamarock, and Christos Zerefos. Kenneth Schere and an anonymous reviewer provided detailed comments that improved this article. Kenneth Schere (US Environmental Protection Agency) is thanked for a thorough review of this article, and for his many valuable comments.pt_PT
dc.publisherEuropean Geosciences Unionpt_PT
dc.titleA review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europept_PT
degois.publication.titleAtmospheric Chemistry and Physicspt_PT
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