Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/26167
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dc.contributor.advisorQueiroga, Henriquept_PT
dc.contributor.advisorVanreusel, Annpt_PT
dc.contributor.authorGomes, Inês Alves dos Santos Teixeirapt_PT
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-04T12:35:22Z-
dc.date.available2019-06-04T12:35:22Z-
dc.date.issued2018-06-22-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10773/26167-
dc.description.abstractIn order to avoid, reduce and offset the impact that human activities are having on the health of the world's oceans, the international demand for a successful ecosystem-based approach to the marine environment is growing in popularity. Major European maritime policies and other international agencies advocate that, in order to effectively protect the marine environment, there is a need to establish ecologically coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). Achieving ecological coherence is, however, a complex task given the magnitude of the concept and the lack of clear operational definitions. Therefore, assessing ecological coherence requires multiple approaches to analyse not only the location, size and spacing of protected sites already selected for protection, but also infer about new sites to enhance network effects. The aim of this thesis is to develop and use different tools to assist, support and help to promote the assessment of the ecological coherence of networks of MPAs, with a focus on continental Portugal. Three complementary methods were applied using the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as a model species to estimate connectivity via larval dispersal along the Portuguese west coast. The first study described the use of natural geochemical tags to trace back natal origins of mussels and describe direct measures of demographic connectivity patterns (dispersal trajectories and distances). It focused in the Arrábida and Berlengas Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and emphasized the significance of source and sink populations and self-recruitment within MPAs. The second study resulted from the need to quantify mussel bed coverage in order to apply the connectivity estimates into broader scale models of larval dispersal. The use of low altitude and high-resolution drone imagery, 3D surface models and ground-based observations proved to be a viable and powerful tool for surveying intertidal ecosystems at an ecological relevant spatial scale. The effect of environmental variables (substrate complexity and wave exposure) on mussel density and size was also investigated. Maximum mussel density occurred at intermediate values of wave exposure in winter while smaller sized mussels prevailed at high values of wave exposure. The combination of the empirical connectivity estimates, with mussel demographic and biological parameters (reproductive output, larval behaviour, mortality) allowed the validation of a broad scale numerical biophysical model in the third study This model combined oceanographic and demographic information with larval biology, and was used to simulate dispersal of M. galloprovincialis larvae along the Western Iberian coast. The biophysical model simulated and accounted for uncertainty of the geochemical method in the assignment of source populations and resulted in unprecedented levels of correspondence among independent connectivity estimates at small spatial scales. This fine-tuned model can be used in the future to investigate metapopulation dynamics with applications in MPA management strategies. Finally, a quantitative-based ecological approach was used to value biodiversity along the Portuguese continental shelf. The marine biological valuation protocol summarized and combined existing biological and ecological spatial information of different ecosystem components into an overall map of marine biological value, highlighting hotspots of ecological significance. This study also evaluated the extent to which high biological value was contained in the current and projected Natura 2000 sites in Portugal. By integrating the information of marine connectivity pathways, with a broad biological assessment of the Portuguese coast, this thesis seeks to build upon existing MPA assessment criterion and take a step forward in making it practical and applicable to the Portuguese setting.pt_PT
dc.description.abstractA pressão internacional para encontrar abordagens ecossistémicas eficazes para evitar, reduzir e compensar o impacto das atividades humanas na saúde global dos oceanos, está a aumentar. Nesse sentido, as principais políticas marítimas europeias e de outras agências internacionais, defendem a necessidade de estabelecer redes ecologicamente coerentes de áreas marinhas protegidas (AMPs). Atingir a coerência ecológica é, no entanto, uma tarefa complexa dada a magnitude do conceito e a falta de definições operacionais objectivas. Deste modo, avaliar a coerência ecológica requer abordagens múltiplas para analisar a localização, tamanho e espaçamento entre áreas protegidas já selecionadas, mas também para inferir sobre a designação de novos locais e melhor a performance da rede. O objetivo desta tese é desenvolver e utilizar diferentes ferramentas de forma a apoiar e promover uma avaliação da coerência ecológica da rede de AMPs em Portugal continental. Este trabalho utilizou três métodos complementares para estimar conectividade larvar ao longo da costa oeste portuguesa, usando o mexilhão Mytilus galloprovincialis como espécie-modelo. O primeiro método retrata o uso de etiquetas geoquímicas naturais para fazer o rastreo da origem natal de mexilhões, quantificando padrões de conectividade demográfica (trajetórias de dispersão e distâncias). Concentrou-se nas AMPs da Arrábida e Berlengas, salientando a importância das populações que servem como fonte de indivíduos para dispersão e auto-recrutamento dentro das AMPs. O segundo método resultou da necessidade de quantificar a cobertura de mexilhão no intermareal rochoso, para futura aplicação em modelos de dispersão larvar de larga escala. O uso de imagens aéreas de baixa altitude e de alta resolução, modelos de superfície tridimensionais e de observações in situ, provaram ser uma ferramenta viável para monitorizar ecossistemas intermareais numa escala espacial ecologicamente relevante. O efeito de variáveis ambientais (complexidade do substrato e exposição às ondas) na densidade e tamanho do mexilhão foi também investigado. A densidade máxima de mexilhão no substrato rochoso ocorreu com valores intermédios de exposição às ondas no Inverno, enquanto que altos valores de exposição às ondas resultaram num menor tamanho dos mexilhões. No terceiro estudo, a combinação das estimativas empíricas de conectividade, com parâmetros demográficos (fertilidade, comportamento larval, mortalidade) permitiram a validação de um modelo numérico biofísico de larga escala. Este modelo integrou informações oceanográficas, demográficas e de biologia larvar, para simular a dispersão de larvas de M. galloprovincialis ao longo da costa oeste da Peninsula Ibérica. O modelo incorporou e simulou também a incerteza associada à atribuição da origem das populações referente ao método geoquímico. Os resultados demonstraram altos níveis de correspondência entre as estimativas independentes de conectividade a uma pequena escala espacial. Este modelo validado pode ser usado no futuro para investigar dinâmicas metapopulacionais com aplicações em estratégias de gestão de AMPs. Finalmente, utilizou-se uma abordagem ecológica para valorizar a biodiversidade marinha ao longo da plataforma continental portuguesa. Este protocolo de avaliação biológica integrou informações biológicas e ecológicas espaciais, para diversos componentes do ecossistema. Os resultados foram ilustrados num mapa global de valor biológico marinho, destacando hotspots de significância ecológica. Este estudo avaliou também em que medida as zonas de alto valor biológico estavam incluido nas áreas protegidas da rede Natura 2000 em Portugal (actuais e propostas). Ao integrar a informação das vias de conectividade marinha, com uma ampla avaliação biológica da costa portuguesa, esta tese procura contribuir para os critérios de avaliação de redes de AMPs e dar um passo em frente no sentido de o tornar aplicável ao panorama português.pt_PT
dc.description.abstractDe internationale vraag naar een succesvolle ecosysteem-gebaseerde aanpak om de impact van menselijke activiteiten op de gezondheid van de oceanen te vermijden, te reduceren of te compenseren, neemt toe in populariteit. Belangrijke Europese maritieme beleidsinstanties en andere internationale agentschappen benadrukken dat het oprichten van ecologisch coherente netwerken van beschermde zeegebieden noodzakelijk is om het mariene milieu doeltreffend te beschermen. Echter, het bereiken van ecologische coherentie is een complexe taak gezien het ruime concept en het ontbreken van eenduidige operationele definities. Het vaststellen van ecologische coherentie vereist dus verschillende benaderingen. Op die manier kan niet alleen de locatie, de grootte en afstand van reeds geselecteerde gebieden voor bescherming bepaald worden, maar ook nieuwe locaties die het netwerkeffect versterken. Het doel van deze thesis is het ontwikkelen en toepassen van verschillende methodes als hulpmiddel om de ecologische samenhang van beschermde zeegebieden te promoten, en dit met focus op het Portugese continentale plat. Drie complementaire methodes werden toegepast om de connectiviteit via larvale dispersie in te schatten langs de Portugese westkust en dit telkens toegepast op de mossel Mytilus galloprovincialis als modelorganisme. De eerste studie beschrijft het gebruik van natuurlijk voorkomende geochemische tracers om de oorsprong van de mossels te achterhalen en documenteert dus de demografische connectiviteitspatronen (verspreidingsroutes en afstanden). De focus lag op de beschermde zeegebieden van Arrábida en Berlengas, en benadrukte het belang van ‘source–and–sink’ populaties en zelf-recrutering binnen de beschermde gebieden. In een tweede studie werd de oppervlakte van mosselbedden gekwantificeerd zodat de connectiviteitsschattingen konden toegepast worden op modellen van larvale dispersie op grotere schaal. Het gebruik van beeldmateriaal met hoge resolutie verzameld door drones op lage hoogte, 3D-oppervlakte modellen en veldobservaties bleek een efficiënte methode om intertidale ecosystemen te bestuderen op een ecologisch relevante schaal. De combinatie van empirische connectiviteitsschattingen en demografische en biologische parameters (oppervlakte van mosselbedden, gedrag van larves, mortaliteit, reproductieve output en timing) laat de validatie toe van een grootschalig numeriek, biofysisch model. Het effect van de omgevingsvariablen (zoals substratum complexiteit en blootstelling aan golven) op de mosseldichtheid en -grootte werd ook onderzocht. Maximum mosseldichtheid kwam voor bij intermediaire waarden van golfblootstelling in de winter en kleinere mosselen domineerden bij hoge waarden van blootstelling aan golven. Dit model combineert oceanografische en demografische informatie met larvale biologie, en werd gebruikt om de dispersie van M. galloprovincialis larven langs de West-Iberische kust te simuleren. Het biofysisch model hield rekening met de onzekerheid van de geochemische methode in het toekennen van de ‘source’ populaties en resulteerde in ongeziene overeenkomsten tussen de onafhankelijke connectiviteitsschattingen op kleine schaal. Vanaf nu kan dit verfijnde model gebruikt worden om de dynamieken van metapopulaties te onderzoeken en kan het dus bijdragen aan weldoordachte strategieën met betrekking tot het oprichten van beschermde zeegebieden Tot slot werd een kwantitatief-gebaseerde ecologische aanpak gebruikt om de biodiversiteit te bepalen langs het Portugees continentaal plat. Het protocol voor mariene biologische waardebepaling combineerde bestaande biologische en ecologische informatie van verschillende subzones in een kaart die de biologische waardebepaling weergeeft, en hotspots van ecologisch belang identificeert. Deze studie evalueerde ook de mate waarin grote biologische waarde vervat zit in de huidige en toekomstige Natura 2000 gebieden in Portugal. Door het integreren van informatie over mariene connectiviteitsroutes, met breed biologisch onderzoek langs de Portugese kust, bouwt deze thesis verder op het bestaande criterium voor de selectie van beschermde gebieden, en maakt het praktisch en toepasbaar voor Portugal.pt_PT
dc.description.sponsorshipMARES PhD Grant (MARES_12_10); FPA 2011-0016pt_PT
dc.language.isoengpt_PT
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/COMPETE/120483/PTpt_PT
dc.rightsopenAccesspt_PT
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/pt_PT
dc.subjectMarine Protected Areaspt_PT
dc.subjectNetworkspt_PT
dc.subjectEcological Coherencept_PT
dc.subjectConnectivitypt_PT
dc.subjectRepresentativitypt_PT
dc.subjectNatural tagspt_PT
dc.subjectUnmanned Aerial Vehiclespt_PT
dc.subjectBiophysical modelingpt_PT
dc.subjectMarine Biological Valuationpt_PT
dc.titleConnectivity and biological valuation: tools to assess the ecological coherence of networks of marine protected areaspt_PT
dc.title.alternativeConectividade e avaliação biológica: ferramentas para avaliar a coerência ecológica de redes de áreas marinhas protegidaspt_PT
dc.typedoctoralThesispt_PT
thesis.degree.grantorUniversidade de Aveiropt_PT
dc.description.doctoralPrograma Doutoral em Ciências do Mar (Mares)pt_PT
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