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|Title:||Soil moisture influences the avoidance behavior of invertebrate species in anthropogenic metal(loid)-contaminated soils|
|Author:||Gonzalez-Alcaraz, Maria Nazaret|
Cardoso, Diogo N.
|Abstract:||Water availability is paramount in the response of soil invertebrates towards stress situations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of forecasted soil moisture scenarios on the avoidance behavior of two invertebrate species (the arthropod Folsomia candida and the soft-bodied oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus) in soils degraded by different types of anthropogenic metal(loid) contamination (mining soil and agricultural soil affected by industrial chemical wastes). Different soil moisture contents (expressed as % of the soil water holding capacity, WHC) were evaluated: 50% (standard soil moisture conditions for soil invertebrates' tests); 75% (to simulate increasing soil water availability after intense rainfalls and/or floods); 40%, 30%, 25% and 20% (to simulate decreasing soil water availability during droughts). Invertebrates’ avoidance behavior and changes in soil porewater major ions and metal(loid)s were assessed after 48 h exposure. Soil incubations induced a general solubilization/mobilization of porewater major ions, while higher soil acidity favored the solubilization/mobilization of porewater metal(loid)s, especially at 75% WHC. Folsomia candida preferred soils moistened at 50% WHC, regardless the soils were contaminated or not and the changing soil porewater characteristics. Enchytraeus crypticus avoided metal(loid) contamination, but this depended on the soil moisture conditions and the corresponding changes in porewater characteristics: enchytraeids lost their capacity to avoid contaminated soils under water stress situations (75% and 20–25% WHC), but also when contaminated soils had greater water availability than control soils. Therefore, forecasted soil moisture scenarios induced by global warming changed soil porewater composition and invertebrates capacity to avoid metal(loid)-contaminated soils.|
|Appears in Collections:||CESAM - Artigos|
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