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|Title:||Production of highly efficient activated carbons from industrial wastes for the removal of pharmaceuticals from water: a full factorial design|
Silva, Carla Patrícia
Oliveira, João A. B. P.
Santos, Sérgio M.
Gil, María Victoria
Esteves, Valdemar I.
|Keywords:||Primary paper mill sludge|
Full factorial design
|Abstract:||The wide occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments urges the development of cost-effective solutions for their removal from water. In a circular economy context, primary paper mill sludge (PS) was used to produce activated carbon (AC) aiming the adsorptive removal of these contaminants. The use of low-cost precursors for the preparation of ACs capable of competing with commercial ACs continues to be a challenge. A full factorial design of four factors (pyrolysis temperature, residence time, precursor/activating agent ratio, and type of activating agent) at two levels was applied to the production of AC using PS as precursor. The responses analysed were the yield of production, percentage of adsorption for three pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and paroxetine), specific surface area (SBET), and total organic carbon (TOC). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate influencing factors in the responses and to determine the most favourable production conditions. Four ACs presented very good responses, namely on the adsorption of the pharmaceuticals under study (average adsorption percentage around 78%, which is above that of commercial AC), and SBET between 1389 and 1627 m2 g-1. A desirability analysis pointed out 800 °C for 60 min and a precursor/KOH ratio of 1:1 (w/w) as the optimal production conditions.|
|Appears in Collections:||CESAM - Artigos|
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