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Title: Preliminary evaluation of the toxic effects of the antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211™ in the soft coral Sarcophyton cf. glaucum (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) based on PAM fluorometry and biomarkers
Author: Cima, Francesca
Ferrari, Giulia
Ferreira, Nuno G. C.
Rocha, Rui J. M.
Serôdio, João
Loureiro, Susana
Calado, Ricardo
Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes
Coral reefs
Photosynthetic efficiency
Photosynthetic symbiosis
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Sea-Nine 211™ is a new biocide specifically formulated for antifouling paints and being considered to have a low environmental impact. Even with a short environmental half-life, this compound can cause toxic effects on marine organisms. This study used PAM fluorometry and biomarkers of oxidative stress (GST, CAT and LPO) to monitor potential toxic effects of Sea-Nine 211™ on fragments of the soft coral Sarcophyton cf. glaucum. After exposure to concentrations of 1-100 μg l-1for 72 h, CAT activity was inhibited under the two highest concentrations, being in accordance with the activity of GST. LPO activity (as TBARS) and photosynthetic efficiency of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae were not significantly affected. These results show that PAM fluorometry alone cannot detect the full effects of Sea-Nine 211™ on Sarcophyton cf. glaucum and should be used together with other biomarkers. This holobiont driven approach to evaluate chemical toxicity in photosynthetic corals is therefore recommended for biocides which are not photosystem II inhibitors.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.10.004
ISSN: 0141-1136
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DBio - Artigos

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