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Title: EPR detection of paramagnetic chromium in liver of fish (Anguilla anguilla) treated with dichromate(VI) and associated oxidative stress responses - contribution to elucidation of toxicity mechanisms
Author: Pacheco, M.
Santos, M. A.
Pereira, P.
Martínez, J. I.
Alonso, P. J.
Soares, M. J.
Lopes, J. C.
Keywords: Chromium
Electron paramagnetic resonance
Oxidative stress
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: The impact of chromium (Cr) on fish health has been the subject of numerous investigations, establishing a wide spectrum of toxicity, attributed particularly to the hexavalent form [Cr(VI)]. However, reports on the simultaneous assessment of Cr toxicity in fish and its toxico-kinetics, namely involving metal speciation, are scarce. Therefore, keeping in view the understanding of the mechanisms of Cr(VI) toxicity, this work intended to detect the formation of paramagnetic Cr species in liver of Anguilla anguilla following short-term dichromate(VI) intraperitoneal treatment (up to 180 min), assessing simultaneously the pro-oxidant properties. The formation of Cr(V) and Cr(III) was examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), as an innovative approach in the context of fish toxicology, and related with the levels of total Cr. Cr(V) was successfully detected and quantified by EPR spectrometry, showing a transient occurrence, mostly between 15 and 90 min post-injection, with a peak at 30 min. The limitations of EPR methodology towards the detection and quantification of Cr(III) were confirmed. Although Cr(VI) exposure induced the antioxidant system in the eel's liver, the oxidative deterioration of lipids was not prevented. Overall, the results suggested that Cr(V), as a short-lived species, did not appear to be directly and primarily responsible for the cellular damaging effects observed, since stress responses persisted up to the end of exposure regardless Cr(V) drastic decay. Though further research is needed, ROS mediated pathways (suggested by superoxide dismutase and catalase activity induction) and formation of Cr(III) complexes emerged as the most plausible mechanisms involved in Cr(VI) toxicity.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2012.10.009
ISSN: 1532-0456
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