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Title: Indoor and outdoor suspended particulate matter and associated carbonaceous species at residential homes in northwestern Portugal
Author: Custódio, Danilo
Pinho, Isabel
Cerqueira, Mário
Nunes, Teresa
Pio, Casimiro
Keywords: Elemental carbon
I/O ratio
Indoor air
Organic carbon
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10μm (PM10), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were measured simultaneously in the indoor and outdoor air of 4 residences located in urban and sub-urban areas in northwestern Portugal. The residences were studied with occupants. One residence was also studied without any indoor activity, taking advantage of the fact that the occupants had moved into a new home. First, 48-h aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with low-volume samplers equipped with size selective inlets. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for OC and EC using a thermal-optical transmittance method. The average indoor and outdoor PM10 concentrations in the occupied residences were 71.9±38.3μg/m3 and 54.0±13.3μg/m3, respectively. Despite the higher concentration of PM10 indoors, outdoor sources were found to be a significant contributor to indoor concentrations. An estimate based on data from the residence studied under different occupancy conditions indicated that outdoor sources can account for 68% of the indoor PM10 mass concentration. Average indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios for OC ranged from 1.7 to 5.6 in occupied residences, showing that indoor sources, such as cooking, smoking, biomass burning and movement of people, strongly influenced indoor OC concentrations. In contrast, I/O ratios for EC were close to 1, except for a smokers' residence, suggesting that indoor concentrations were mainly controlled by outdoor sources, most likely from vehicular emissions and biomass burning.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.009
ISSN: 0048-9697
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DAO - Artigos

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