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Title: Numerical evolutions of spherical Proca stars
Author: Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas
Herdeiro, Carlos
Radu, Eugen
Degollado, Juan Carlos
Font, José A.
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: American Physical Society
Abstract: Vector boson stars, or Proca stars, have been recently obtained as fully nonlinear numerical solutions of the Einstein-(complex)-Proca system [1]. These are self-gravitating, everywhere nonsingular, horizonless Bose-Einstein condensates of a massive vector field, which resemble in many ways, but not all, their scalar cousins, the well-known (scalar) boson stars. In this paper we report fully nonlinear numerical evolutions of Proca stars, focusing on the spherically symmetric case, with the goal of assessing their stability and the end point of the evolution of the unstable stars. Previous results from linear perturbation theory indicate that the separation between stable and unstable configurations occurs at the solution with maximal ADM mass. Our simulations confirm this result. Evolving numerically unstable solutions, we find, depending on the sign of the binding energy of the solution and on the perturbation, three different outcomes: (i) migration to the stable branch, (ii) total dispersion of the scalar field, or (iii) collapse to a Schwarzschild black hole. In the latter case, a long-lived Proca field remnant-a Proca wig-composed by quasibound states, may be seen outside the horizon after its formation, with a lifetime that scales inversely with the Proca mass. We comment on the similarities/differences with the scalar case as well as with neutron stars.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.104028
ISSN: 2470-0010
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