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Title: Carbaryl toxicity prediction to soil organisms under high and low temperature regimes
Author: Lima, Maria P. R.
Cardoso, Diogo N.
Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.
Loureiro, Susana
Keywords: Temperature
Folsomia candida
Eisenia andrei
Triticum aestivum
Brassica rapa
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Many studies on risk assessment of pesticides on non-target organisms have been performed based on standardized protocols that reflect conditions in temperate climates. However, the responses of organisms to chemical compounds may differ according to latitude and thus predicting the toxicity of chemicals at different temperatures is an important factor to consider in risk assessment. The toxic effects of the pesticide carbaryl were evaluated at different temperature regimes, which are indicative of temperate and tropical climates and are relevant to climate change predictions or seasonal temperature fluctuations. Four standard organisms were used (Folsomia candida, Eisenia andrei; Triticum aestivum and Brassica rapa) and the effects were assessed using synergistic ratios, calculated from EC/LC50 values. When possible, the MIXTOX tool was used based on the reference model of independent action (IA) and possible deviations. A decrease on carbaryl toxicity at higher temperatures was found in F. candida reproduction, but when the mixtox tool was used no interactions between these stressors (Independent Action) was observed, so an additive response was suggested. Synergistic ratios showed a tendency to synergism at high temperatures for E. andrei and B. rapa and antagonism at low temperatures for both species. T aestivum showed to be less affected than expected (antagonism), when exposed to both low and high temperatures. The results showed that temperature may increase the deleterious effects of carbaryl to non-target organisms, which is important considering both seasonal and latitude related differences, as well as the global climate change context
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.04.004
ISSN: 0147-6513
Appears in Collections:CESAM - Artigos
DBio - Artigos

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