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Title: Ecotoxicological effect of zinc pyrithione in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki
Author: Nunes, B.
Braga, M. R.
Campos, J. C.
Gomes, R.
Ramos, A. S.
Antunes, S. C.
Correia, A. T.
Keywords: Antifouling
Histological damage
Oxidative stress
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Springer
Abstract: Currently diverse biocidal agents can be used for distinct applications, such as personal hygiene, disinfection, antiparasitic activity, and antifouling effects. Zinc pyrithione is an organometallic biocide, with bactericidal, algicidal and fungicidal activities. It has been recently incorporated in antifouling formulas, such as paints, which prevent the establishment of a biofilm on surfaces exposed to the aquatic environment. It has also been used in cosmetics, such as anti-dandruff shampoos and soaps. Previously reported data has shown the presence of this substance in the aquatic compartment, a factor contributing to the potential exertion of toxic effects, and there is also evidence that photodegradation products of zinc pyrithione were involved in neurotoxic effects, namely by inhibiting cholinesterases in fish species. Additional evidence points to the involvement of zinc pyrithione in alterations of metal homeostasis and oxidative stress, in both aquatic organisms and human cell models. The present work assesses the potential ecotoxicity elicited by zinc pyrithione in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki after an acute (96 h) exposure. The oxidative stress was assessed by the quantification of the activities of specific enzymes from the antioxidant defense system, such as catalase, and glutathione- S-transferases; and the extent of peroxidative damage was quantified by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. Neurotoxicity was assessed through measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity; and a standardized method for the description and assessment of histological changes in liver and gills of was also used. Zinc pyrithione caused non-specific and reversible tissue alterations, both in liver and gills of exposed organisms. However, histopathological indices were not significantly different from the control group. In terms of oxidative stress biomarkers, none of the tested biomarkers indicated the occurrence of pro-oxidative effects, suggesting that the oxidative pathway is not the major toxicological outcome of exposure to zinc pyrithione.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1007/s10646-015-1525-6
ISSN: 0963-9292
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