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|title: ||Controller Area Network|
|authors: ||Joaquim José Castro Ferreira|
José Alberto gouveia fonseca
|keywords: ||CAN, filedbus, FTT-CAN|
|issue date: ||28-Feb-2011|
|publisher: ||CRC Press|
|abstract: ||Controller Area Network (CAN) is a popular and very well-known bus system, both in academia and in industry. CAN protocol was introduced in the mid eighties by Robert Bosch GmbH  and it was internationally standardized in 1993 as ISO 11898-1 . It was initially designed to distributed automotive control systems, as a single digital bus to replace traditional point-to-point cables that were growing in complexity, weight and cost with the introduction of new electrical and electronic systems. Nowadays CAN is still used extensively in automotive applications, with an excess of 400 million CAN enabled microcontrollers manufactured each year .
The widespread and successful use of CAN in the automotive industry, the low cost asso- ciated with high volume production of controllers and CAN's inherent technical merit, have driven to CAN adoption in other application domains such as: industrial communications,
medical equipment, machine tool, robotics and in distributed embedded systems in general.
CAN provides two layers of the stack of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model: the physical layer and the data link layer. Optionally, it could also provide an additional application layer, not included on the CAN standard. Notice that CAN physical layer was not dened in Bosch original specication, only the data link layer was dened. However, the CAN ISO specication lled this gap and the physical layer was then fully specied. CAN is a message-oriented transmission protocol, i.e., it denes message contents rather than nodes and node addresses. Every message has an associated message identier, which is unique within the whole network, dening both the content and the priority of the message. Transmission rates are dened up to 1 Mbps.
The large installed base of CAN nodes with low failure rates over almost two decades, led to the use of CAN in some critical applications such as Anti-locking Brake Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP) in cars. In parallel with the wide dissemination of CAN in industry, the academia also devoted a large eort to CAN analysis and research, making CAN one of the must studied eldbuses. That is why a large number of books or book chapters describing CAN were published. The rst CAN book, written in French by D. Paret, was published in 1997 and presents the CAN basics . More implementation oriented approaches, including CAN node implementation and application examples, can be found in Lorenz  and in Etschberger , while more compact descriptions of CAN can be found in  and in some chapters of .
Despite its success story, CAN application designers would be happier if CAN could be made faster, cover longer distances, be more deterministic and more dependable . Over the years, several protocols based in CAN were presented, taking advantage of some CAN properties and trying to improve some known CAN drawbacks. This chapter, besides presenting an overview of CAN, describes also some other relevant higher level protocols based on CAN, such as CANopen , DeviceNet , FTT-CAN  and TTCAN .|
|appears in collections||ESTGA - Capítulo de livro|
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