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 Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item http://hdl.handle.net/10773/7065

title: Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraception on Singers' Pitch Control
authors: Lã, FMB
Sundberg, J.
Howard, D.M.
Sá-Coutro, P.
Freitas, A.
keywords: Intonation
Vibrato rate
Vibrato extent
Menstrual cycle
Oral contraceptive pill
issue date: Dec-2012
publisher: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
abstract: Purpose: Difficulties with intonation and vibrato control during the menstrual cycle have been reported by singers; however, this phenomenon has not yet been systematically investigated. Method: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing effects of the menstrual cycle and use of a combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on pitch control in singing is presented. Audio-electrolaryngograph recordings were made and blood samples were taken from 9 singers in each of the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle both under the placebo and the OCP conditions for a total of 6 months. Participants sang an exercise consisting of an ascending octave followed by a descending major triad, starting on pitches F4 and B4. Pitch control was assessed in terms of the octave’s deviations from pure intonation and of the vibrato rate and extent. Results: Significant differences were found between the 3 phases of the cycle regarding octave size only for pitch F5 during OCP use. Significant vibrato rate differences between placebo and OCP conditions were found only for pitch F5. Conclusion: OCP use may have an effect on pitch control in singers. Possible explanations point to a complex interaction between hormonal milieu and pitch control, enhancing the need for longitudinal studies.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/7065
ISSN: 1558-9102
publisher version/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0348)
source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
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