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 Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item http://hdl.handle.net/10773/6617

title: Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios
authors: Lima, MPR
Soares, AMVM
Loureiro, S
keywords: Soil moisture
Carbaryl
Synergism
Antagonism
Non-target species
issue date: 2011
publisher: Elsevier
abstract: Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/6617
ISSN: 0269-7491
publisher version/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.03.029
source: Environmental Pollution
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