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 Is ultraviolet radiation a synergistic stressor in combined exposures? The case study of Daphnia magna exposure to UV and carbendazim
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item http://hdl.handle.net/10773/6481

title: Is ultraviolet radiation a synergistic stressor in combined exposures? The case study of Daphnia magna exposure to UV and carbendazim
authors: Ribeiro, F
Ferreira, NCG
Ferreira, A
Soares, AMVM
Loureiro, S
keywords: Daphnia magna
Ultraviolet radiation
Independent Action
issue date: 2011
publisher: Elsevier
abstract: The toxicological assessment of chemical compounds released to the environment is more accurate when mixtures of chemicals and/or interactions between chemicals and natural stressors are considered. Ultraviolet radiation can be taken as a natural stressor since the levels of UV are increasing due to the decrease of its natural filter, the stratospheric ozone concentration. Therefore, a combination of chemical exposures and increasing UV irradiance in aquatic environments is likely to occur. In the current study, combined effects of carbendazim and ultraviolet radiation were evaluated, using selected life traits as endpoints on Daphnia magna. To design combined exposures, first single chemical and natural stressor bioassays were performed: a reproduction test with carbendazim and a reproduction, feeding inhibition and Energy budget test with ultraviolet radiation. Following single exposures, the combinations of stressors included exposures to UV radiation and carbendazim for a maximum exposure time of 4 h, followed by a post-exposure period in chemically contaminated medium for a maximum of 15 days, depending on the endpoint, where the effects of the combined exposures were investigated. Statistical analyses of the data set were performed using the MixTox tool and were based on the conceptual model of Independent Action (IA) and possible deviations to synergism or antagonism, dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern. Both ultraviolet radiation and carbendazim as single stressors had negative impacts on the measured life traits of daphnids, a decrease on both feeding rates and reproduction was observed. Feeding rates and reproduction of D. magna submitted to combined exposures of ultraviolet radiation and carbendazim showed a dose-ratio deviation from the conceptual model as the best description of the data set, for both endpoints. For feeding inhibition, antagonism was observed when the UV radiation was the dominant item in combination, and for reproduction, synergism was observed when UV radiation dominated the exposure. From these results, the combined exposure of ultraviolet radiation and chemical compounds should also be considered for risk assessment as this study has shown that more severe effect than expected by single chemical assessment might be observed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/6481
ISSN: 0166-445X
publisher version/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.007
source: Aquatic Toxicology
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