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|title: ||Evaluation of the joint effect of glyphosate and dimethoate using a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem|
|authors: ||Santos, MJG|
|issue date: ||2011|
|abstract: ||In the present work a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem (STEM) containing a soil collected from an agricultural field in Central Portugal was used to evaluate the effects of the combination of the herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide dimethoate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei), isopods (Porcellionides pruinosus), turnip seeds (Brassica rapa), and bait-lamina strips were placed in the STEM. The results showed that the application of the recommended field dose of both pesticides did not cause any effect on the weight variation of earthworms and growth of the plants. The application of the herbicide, even at 5 and 10 times the field dose, increased feeding activity in soil (bait-lamina test), although the application of dimethoate led to a decrease in feeding activity in all concentrations tested. The binary mixtures performed showed that according to the Independent Action model, synergism (higher effect than expected from the single exposures) was observed in both the shoot length and fresh weight of B. rapa at 5 times the field dose, but antagonism was observed at 10 times the field dose. Regarding the germination success, synergism was observed at the field dose, but antagonism was detected at 5 times and 10 times the field dose. There was a decrease on the earthworm's weight in all concentrations tested, although no statistical differences were observed in any of the treatments made. Regarding depth distribution of E. andrei, worms were found in the upper layer more than it was predicted for all concentrations. In the mixtures with the field and 5 times the field dose there was a decrease in the feeding activity (bait-lamina consumption) by the soil fauna. From the four biomarkers assessed on the isopods (Catalase, Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione-S-transferase, and Lipid peroxidation), only a significant decrease in the Acetylcholinesterase activity upon dimethoate and the binary mixtures exposures performed with the field dose was observed and on Lipid peroxidation at the field doses of single and binary exposures. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
|source: ||Ecotoxicology and environmental safety|
|appears in collections||BIO - Artigos|
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