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 Characterizing sediment acid volatile sulfide concentrations in European streams
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item http://hdl.handle.net/10773/5388

title: Characterizing sediment acid volatile sulfide concentrations in European streams
authors: Burton, G. Allen
Green, Andrew
Baudo, Renato
Forbes, Valery
Nguyen, Lien T. H.
Janssen, Colin R.
Kukkonen, Jussi
Leppanen, Matti
Maltby, Lorraine
Soares, Amadeu
Kapo, Katherine
Smith, Preston
Dunning, John
keywords: Risk assessment
Metals
Bioavailability
issue date: 2007
publisher: SETAC Press
abstract: Sediment acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentrations were measured in wadeable streams of a wide variety of ecoregions of western Europe (84 sites in 10 countries and nine ecoregions) to better understand spatial distribution and ecoregion relationships. Acid volatile sulfide has been shown to be a major factor controlling the bioavailability and toxicity of many common trace metals, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Sediment characteristics varied widely. The ratio of the sum of the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) to AVS ranged from 0.03 to 486.59. The SEM-AVS ranged from 40.02 to 17.71 mol/g. On a regional scale, sediment characteristics such as dominant parent soil material showed significant trends in AVS distribution and variation by ecoregion. Total Fe and Mn were correlated weakly with SEM concentrations. Three AVS model approaches (i.e., the SEM:AVS ratio, SEM-AVS difference, and carbon normalization) were compared at threshold exceedance levels of SEM/AVS 9, SEM-AVS 2, and SEMAVS/fOC 150 mol/g organic carbon (OC). Only 4.76% of the sediments exceeded all three AVS thresholds; 22.6% of the sediments exceeded two models; and 13% of the sediments exceeded one model only. Using the SEM:AVS, SEM-AVS, and fraction of organic carbon models, and including site-specific data and regional soil characteristics, ecoregions 1 (Portugal), 3 (Italy), 4 (Switzerland), and 9 (Belgium/Germany) had the highest potential metals toxicity; ecoregions 13 and 8 (Belgium/France) showed the lowest potential toxicity. However, because AVS can vary widely spatially and temporally, these data should not be considered as representative of the sampled ecoregions. The general relationship between AVS levels and sediment characteristics provides some predictive capability for wadeable streams in the European ecoregions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10773/5388
ISSN: 0730-7268
source: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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