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|title: ||An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples|
|authors: ||Yttri, K. E.|
Jaffrezo, J. -L.
Lopez-Mahia, P. L.
|issue date: ||2015|
|publisher: ||European Geosciences Union|
|abstract: ||The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan,
galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete
combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses,
and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning
(BB) aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle
concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study
the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste
burning and wildfire emissions on ambient air quality. A
European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three
monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient
aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian
urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples’
content of MAs is representative for BB particles originating
from residential wood burning. The purpose of the
intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the
great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of
levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol
filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which
three applied high-performance anion-exchange chromatography
(HPAEC), four used high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) or ultra-performance liquid chromatography
(UPLC) and six resorted to gas chromatography (GC).
The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they
should be considered as thirteen different analytical meth-ods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan,
whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or
galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels
for all three isomers.
The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage
error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied
from 63 to 20 %; however, for 62% of the laboratories the
mean PE was within 10 %, and for 85% the mean PE was
within 20 %. For mannosan, the corresponding range was
60 to 69 %, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially
smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e.
for 33% of the laboratories the mean PE was within 10 %.
For galactosan, the mean PE for the participating laboratories
ranged from 84 to 593 %, and as for mannosan 33% of the
laboratories reported a mean PE within 10 %.
The variability of the various analytical methods, as defined
by their minimum and maximum PE value, was typically
better for levoglucosan than for mannosan and galactosan,
ranging from 3.2 to 41% for levoglucosan, from 10 to
67% for mannosan and from 6 to 364% for galactosan. For
the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio, which may be used to
assess the relative importance of softwood versus hardwood
burning, the variability only ranged from 3.5 to 24 %.
To our knowledge, this is the first major intercomparison
on analytical methods used to quantify monosaccharide anhydrides
in ambient aerosol filter samples conducted and reported
in the scientific literature. The results show that for
levoglucosan the accuracy is only slightly lower than that
reported for analysis of SO2
4 (sulfate) on filter samples, a
constituent that has been analysed by numerous laboratories
for several decades, typically by ion chromatography
and which is considered a fairly easy constituent to measure.
Hence, the results obtained for levoglucosan with respect to
accuracy are encouraging and suggest that levels of levoglucosan,
and to a lesser extent mannosan and galactosan, obtained
by most of the analytical methods currently used to
quantify monosaccharide anhydrides in ambient aerosol filter
samples, are comparable.
Finally, the various analytical methods used in the current
study should be tested for other aerosol matrices and concentrations
as well, the most obvious being summertime aerosol
samples affected by wildfires and/or agricultural fires.|
|publisher version/DOI: ||http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-125-2015|
|source: ||Atmospheric measurement techniques|
|appears in collections||CESAM - Artigos|
DAO - Artigos
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